Pharmacoeconomics: theory and practice
№1, 2023, Vol.11
About 30% of the population of the planet Earth suffers from allergic diseases (AD). Allergic conditions involve multiple body organs and systems and their presentation may vary. This variable presentation makes it difficult for a pharmacist to choose and offer a patient the most effective and safe medication while also explaining the patient why the offered over the counter medication (OTC medication) is the most appropriate for them. A pharmacist may greatly benefit from knowing what OTC medicines are preferred by physicians - allergists when treating certain types of allergic diseases (AD). The goal of the study: analysis of physician’s preferences when treating certain types of AD using different pharmacologic groups of OTC allergy medications and comparison of the obtained data with clinical recommendations (CR) with a goal of using the results for clinical consultations of the patients at the pharmacy. METHODS: a group expert opinion method using a questionnaire was used to collect expert opinions of 16 physicians-allergists. This questionnaire contained comparison OTC allergy medications that are used for treatment of certain AD. A Method of Main Components (MMC) model was used for creating of matrix «Effectiveness of OTC allergy medications». RESULTS: the study found that the main sources of knowledge about allergy medications for physicians-allergists are clinical recommendations and standards of treatment (56,25%), and the effectiveness serves as the most important factor when choosing between allergy medications (4.96 points out of 6). Graphically represented MMC model revealed 2 main trends concerning symptoms of AD: 1) symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR) and allergic conjunctivitis (AC) and 2) skin symptoms of allergic dermatitis (Al D). MMC model allowed for interpretation of data allowing comparison of OTC allergy medications effectiveness in relieving of AD symptoms. This made possible grouping of OTC allergy medications into clusters: 1) the most effective in relieving systemic and local symptoms of AR and AC, 2) the most effective in relieving systemic and local symptoms of Al D, and 3) oral OTC allergy medications equally effective in relieving of both symptoms of AR/AC and Al D. CONCLUSION: study results allowed to reveal OTC allergy medications preferences of physicians-allergists for relieving symptoms of certain allergic conditions. A database of OTC allergy medications was created to facilitate pharmacy consulting for a responsive self-treatment of allergy with consideration of an individual patient’s symptoms. Theoretical knowledge about different groups of OTC allergy medications, their properties and characteristics, combined with new insights about their effectiveness and safety based on practical knowledge of physicians-allergists, will allow a pharmacist to provide consulting better suited to individual patient’s needs.
The study of the main economic processes of the pharmacy organization was carried out and quantitative indicators were obtained. The structure of inventory items is dominated by medicines and medical devices. Benchmarking found a 36.7% decrease in retail turnover, a decrease in real- ized income from 19.7% to 17.8% and an increase of 7.7% in expenses over the same period. The level of the trade margin on goods amounted to in 2021. 20.96%, and in 2022. already 18.68%, there is a decrease in the margin on medical devices, suture material and specialized nutrition. The current situation contributed to the formation of a loss from sales in 2022.
Mental disorders account for a significant proportion of the total global burden of disease, with depression and anxiety being among the top ten causes of disability between the ages of 10 and 49. Pharmacological treatments for mental disorders are effective and are often used as first-line treatment in countries where psychological interventions are difficult to access. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recognized that health systems in selected countries around the world are not yet responding adequately to the burden of mental disorders and there is often a significant gap between the need for mental health care and its availability, especially in countries where psychological in- terventions are difficult to access, especially in low- and middle-income coun- tries. Global monitoring of consumption trends of psychotropic medicines at the country level can provide information on the extent of pharmacological interventions for mental disorders and the availability of psychotropic medicines. Moreover, data on the consumption of psychotropic medicines can be used to assess future policies, especially in middle-income countries where these data are lacking. Therefore, we conducted a pharmacoepidemiological study examining the market structure and costs of psychotropic medicines in the country. In order to assess the availability of psychotropic medicines, we assessed their physical and economic accessibility, which are included in the Essential Medicines List of the Kyrgyz Republic and the Compulsory Health Insurance Fund Reimbursement Handbook.