Socioeconomic burden of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema in the Russian Federation
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a specific neuromicrovascular complication of diabetes mellitus. Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a retinal thickening associated with fluid accumulation in the intercellular space of the neuroep- ithelium due to hematoretinal barrier failure and mismatch between fluid transudation and reabsorption ability of the pigment epithelium cells. Treat- ment of DR and DME appears to be costly, but there are no data on the economic burden of the disease in the Russian Federation. The analysis of direct (the cost of medications, laboratory and instrumental methods of research, the cost of medical products, etc.), indirect (the patient’s lost income in connection with temporary disability, disability payments) and indirect (loss of gross domestic product, etc.) expenses for DR and DMD was carried out. When calculated for the total population of patients with DR and DMD, the total costs amounted to 466,777,104,440 rubles. Of these, RUB 24,059,855,774 were costs for patients with DR, RUB 11,428,438,452 were costs for patients with DMO, RUB 260,078,000,343 were costs for patients with clinically significant DMO, and RUB 171,210,809,871 were costs for patients with clinically significant DMO in both eyes. Direct medical costs accounted for most of the total economic burden (62.44%).
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